c) This new east Jewish languages share numerous has: greatest worry (1), transform from [Theta] to 1 (4), reinterpretation from verb class because the profile (5), and you can reflexive pronouns centered on nos- (17). Speaking of areal has actually and therefore period might separate anywhere between Halabja to your one hand and Koy Sanjaq and you can Azerbaijan on most other. That isn’t clear in which dialect each starts, however they are almost certainly borrowed from a single towards others and not passed on in keeping.
This type of three major groups out-of isoglosses portray simply a tiny area of the research that will be delivered to bear on taxonomy of the NENA languages. Hoberman (1988, 573), using evidence regarding pronouns, demonstrates the existence of a northern Iraqi dialect class (here represented from the Zakho, Tisqopa, and you may Aradhin) and this can not be seen using the restricted study shown here. All it takes now could be one another fuller meanings of the languages currently documented, so that more common and you will identifying functions can be obtained, and have field-work in order to record the countless dialects which happen to be on verge off extinction.
step 1 Thanks a lot are due to individuals who discussed analysis and you can advice, like Gene Gragg, Robert Hoberman, and you will Jo Rubba. E.H. june stipend.
Like, f and you will grams had been retained during the terms like etrog ‘citron’ and sefer ‘scroll of the law’, where on the handed down Aramaic words f could have become p and you may grams might have disappeared
step 3 Garbell (1964, 100-103) says the audio system out of Jewish Azerbaiaic regarding Kurdish. The woman primary evidence for it is the enunciation away from Hebrew mortgage-conditions within this dialect. Hebrew loanwords in the Jewish Azerbaijani keep certain songs that happen to be removed otherwise merged with people in the prominent Neo-Aramaic code. Garbell claims why these retentions establish these particular Hebrew terminology was indeed borrowed originally within the Kurdish, hence a group of Kurdish speakers after managed to move on to help you Neo-Aramaic. It appears probably be the Hebrew facets in the dialect didn’t take part in the fresh new voice alterations in question due to the fresh new special spiritual register that they fall-in. They could have altered right after which been recovered on the foundation of your old-fashioned pronunciation from nearby groups.
cuatro A raised + suggests that the second phrase was noticable on the suprasegmental function ’emphasis’ that’s found somewhat in every NENA dialects. Phonetically, emphasis try advanced, however, its no. 1 parts is velarization, and is also commonly due to the existence of brand new emphatic consonants t and s.
7 In the dialect regarding Tyari [Theta] usually will get s. That it dialect, which was verbal ahead of 1915 when you look at the an area out of Hakkari, is not discussed here given that content involved are insufficient.
8 It is not obvious whether or not this form can be found for the the fresh new Halabja dialect. My informants after that knew they, however, said it actually was significantly more attribute of one’s surrounding town of Suleimaniya. Whatever the case, it is not familiar throughout the dialect of your Jews regarding Sanandaj.
9 Robert Hoberman means in my experience that the NENA models may actually have originated in an enthusiastic unattested metathesized e[Theta]strip ezdi.
Boyarin, Daniel. 1981. In the Bono Homini Donum: Essays in Historical Linguistics within the Thoughts out of J. Alexander Kerns, ed. Yoel L. Arbeitman and Allan Roentgen. Bomhard. Amsterdam Training regarding the Theory and you can Reputation for Linguistic Research, collection IV. Latest Affairs within the Linguistic Principle 16. Area II, 613-forty two. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
An inquiry for the Development of one’s Center Aramaic Languages
Garbell, Irene. 1964. Flat Terms and you will Syllables inside Jewish Eastern The new Aramaic out-of Persian Azerbaijan therefore the Continguous Districts (A dilemma of Multilingualism). When you look at the Degree in the Egyptology and you will Linguistics honoring H. J. Polotsky, ed. H. B. Rosen, 86-103. Jerusalem: Israel Mining Society.